Did you know 1 in 4 people will have a mental disorder in their lifetime? Can you identify any of these disorders or their symptoms?
What is the preferred name for the condition once known as Multiple Personality Disorder?
Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) was also referred to as a 'split personality' due to its characterization of at least two separate identities alternatively controlling the person's behaviour - each unknown to the other and causing large gaps that neither identity can remember while the other was in 'possession.' These are now called 'disassociated personality states'. Disassociation is a psychological term which means a detachment from one's surroundings - this can be as simple as daydreaming all the way up to a catatonic state. The important characteristic is that it is a 'detachment from reality' not a 'loss of reality.' People with dissociate disorders use this as an involuntary defense mechanism. The number of 'alters' a person can have ranges dramatically but most patients report less than 10. These identities may or may not be aware of each other and may have different memories. In general, the 'primary identity' is the more passive and depressed while their alters are much more active and aggressive - some are even quite hostile. The common theory is that these personalities were created to take care of the primary.
This mood disorder was known as Manic Depression for many years. What is its current accepted name?
Bipolar Affective Disorder (BAD) is a condition where individuals suffer from mood swings between depression and mania. BAD is only diagnosed after at least one episode of mania so many people are originally diagnosed and treated for major depression. There are now different sub-classifications of BAD depending on the severity of the manic episodes.
What group of people would you expect to be affected most by Puerperal Psychosis?
Puerperal Psychosis (also known as Postpartum Psychosis) is a severe mental illness following childbirth where the mother has psychotic symptoms. This is not the same as postnatal depression which is a depressive state caused by the birth of a child. The condition is very similar to bipolar disorder in that sufferers have either extreme manic symptoms or those of psychotic depression or can experience both within the same episode. The important differentiation is that this disorder is a psychosis which means that there is a loss of contact with reality with patients showing either delusions or hallucinations.
Which of these Impulse Control Disorders involves the inability to stop stealing?
Kleptomania ((klep-toe-MAY-nee-uh) is an impulsive urge to steal purely for the sake of the gratification that it brings.
Pyromania is an impulsive and repetitive urge to start fires.
Dermatillomania is an uncontrollable urge to pick one's skin.
These urges are classified under Impulse Control Disorders
Impulse Control Disorders (ICD) are a class of disorders where the person is unable to resist an impulse or temptation that may be harmful to others or themselves. The five recognized stages are:
1. The impulse
2. Growing tension
3. Pleasure from acting on impulse
Many people with kleptomania live lives of secret shame because they're afraid to seek mental health treatment. Although there's no cure for kleptomania, treatment with medication or talk therapy (psychotherapy) may help to end the cycle of compulsive stealing.
Which of the following personality disorders are you MOST likely to find linked to criminal behaviour?
Personality Disorders are the most frequently diagnosed of all psychiatric conditions. They involve people whose personalities are different from the expected social 'norms'. Their behaviour often shows problems with impulse control, interpersonal relationships, and understanding. These behaviour patterns usually cause significant distress. Dissocial Personality Disorder (DPD) is very similar to what the Americans call 'Antisocial Personality Disorder' but there are some differences in both definition and diagnostics. Both disorders include a total disregard for the feelings of others and a refusal to follow the rules of society. They are impulsive and have a low anger threshold which most often leads to violence. One of its most obvious traits is the complete inability to feel any guilt over their behaviour or to learn anything from the consequences which arise from it. The very nature of these personality traits tends to bring them into conflict with the law and the rest of society. Many of them have criminal convictions and many die young as a result of their lifestyle.
"Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified" (EDNOS) is now the largest category of eating disorders. Which of these would NOT fit into this group?
EDNOS is a default category - its definition is made by what it is NOT. It is basically an eating disorder that does not meet the criteria for Anorexia Nervosa (AN) or Bulimia Nervosa (BN). They can be patients that have sub-threshold symptoms of these disorders, mixed symptoms of both disorders or a completely different 'atypical' disorder. It is currently the most diagnosed eating disorder and can be a precursor to AN or BN. One study has shown that 40% of people with EDNOS develop either AN or BN within 2 years. Orthorexia Nervosa is a deep obsession with avoiding foods that the person feels are unhealthy which can lead to severe malnutrition and death. Drunkorexia is a term given to people who restrict their food intake so they can drink alcohol without gaining weight. It is most common among females in their 20s. While seeming a rather 'silly' diagnosis the effects can be fatal. Alcohol intake in a state of malnutrition and taken on an empty stomach, which increases the speed of which ethanol enters the bloodstream, leads to much greater risks of blackouts, alcohol poisoning, and all alcohol-related illnesses and injuries. Diabulimia is an eating disorder that affects people with Insulin Dependent Diabetes. Sufferers give themselves less insulin than they need in order to lose weight.
Under what type of classification of psychiatric disorders would you find Schizophrenia?
The term psychosis is derived from the word 'psyche' (Greek for mind or soul) and 'osis' (abnormal condition) meaning an abnormal condition of the mind. It is used for the more severe psychiatric disorders where there is a loss of contact with reality. The term 'schizophrenia' also comes from Greek origins - 'skhizein' (to split) and 'phren' (the mind"). This has often led to confusion from the general public believing it to refer to a 'split personality' when it actually refers to the splitting of the mental functions in the brain. The most common symptoms of Schizophrenia are auditory hallucinations, paranoid delusions, and disorganized speech and thinking. Some of the most common delusions are those where they feel that they are being controlled by an outside force - they hear voices telling them what to do or they think thoughts are either being taken or inserted into their mind by others.
There are three main symptoms used in the diagnosis of Major Depressive Disorder/ Recurrent Depressive Disorder. Which of these would NOT be indicative of this condition?
A recent bereavement would usually lead to a diagnosis of Reactive Depression or an 'Adjustment Disorder with a depressed mood'. These people still suffer from the symptoms of depression but it occurs in response to a known stimuli. This form of depression should be able to be treated within six months of the event that caused it.
Which of these syndromes relates to a person who could be said to be addicted to medical tests and treatments?
Münchhausen (Pronounced as "mynkh-hou-zuhn") Syndrome is a disorder where the person creates or exaggerates an illness so that they can receive attention and sympathy. These people love medical tests and procedures - the more severe cases even enjoy having multiple surgeries. They have a huge amount of knowledge of the human body and the exact signs and symptoms to report that will enable them to receive treatment. These patients are not hypochondriacs who actually believe they have a disease - they are well aware that there is nothing wrong with them (physically at least). There is an offshoot of this disorder known as Münchhausen by proxy. In this case, it is a parent (or guardian) of a child that convinces the medical staff that there is something wrong with their child and the child then has to suffer the investigations. In severe cases, the adult will introduce a disease or life-threatening event into their life.
Which of the following is NOT classified as an Anxiety Disorder?
Querulous Paranoia is classified as a delusional disorder. A person who is known as a querulant is someone who always feels that they have been wronged and seeks legal action based upon this - usually over petty or unfounded claims. Querulous Paranoia refers to a paranoid psychiatric condition that is manifested in querulant behavior.